International Joint Commission (IJC)
More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

Historical Background

Mathew WelshThe Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 is perhaps the most important bilateral agreement between Canada and the United States. Over the past century, it has provided a foundation for cooperation on shared natural resources on the basis of equality between the two countries.

Signed at a time when disagreement over the shared waterways – in several regions – could have divided the nations, the Boundary Waters Treaty established an organization, the International Joint Commission, to investigate, resolve and prevent boundary water disputes between the two countries. 

Get the inside story on the origins of the Treaty, historical highlights as well as information about Canadian IJC Chairs and Commissioners  and U.S. IJC Chairs and Commissioners throughout the century