Background Reports

Review of IJC 2000 Rule Curves

Studies supporting the scheduled rule curve review officially began in 2010, although many other studies done by resource agencies provide additional background data as well - all of these have been reviewed as part of this study. These studies looked at a wide range of potential impacts to the watershed due to the rule curve (flooding damage, wildlife habitat, cultural resources, fish spawning, etc.) and will be used by the Study Board in their evaluation of the 2000 rule curve.

Many of the studies summarized in the reports below are listed in the Plan of Study for the Evaluation of the IJC 2000 Order for Rainy and Namakan Lakes and Rainy River - June 30, 2009.

#1 Wetland vegetation monitoring: Voyageurs National Park. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NRPC/WRD/NRTR--2009/202; Meeker, J. E. and A. G. Harris; National Park Service; 2009

#2 Rainy and Namakan Hydrologic Response Model Documentation, Aaron F. Thompson, Environment Canada, June 2015

#3 An Investigation of the Effects of the 2000 Rule Curve Change on the Rainy River Hydrologic and Hydraulic Regime.

#4 Development of Models to Assess Effects of Water-Level Fluctuations on Reproductive Success of Common Loons

#6 Habitat mapping for marsh nesting birds and herptiles in the Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir area: Using GIS to assess the effects of the 2000 rule curve changes, Environment Canada 2013

#7 Sustained Changes in Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Relation to the 2000 Rule Curve Changes - Sept. 24, 2015

#8 Water-level change effects on northern pike spawning and nursery habitat and reproductive success in Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota - July 27, 2015

#9 Effects of the 2000 Rule Curves on Upper Rainy River Spawning Critical Habitats and Characterization of the Food Web - December 2014

#10 Economic Survey to Determine the Effect of the 2000 Rule Curves on Resorts on Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir - April 2015

#11 Flood and Ice Damage Study: Evaluation of 1970 and 2000 Rule Curves

#12 Evaluation of shoreline impacts and longterm monitoring of shoreline archeological sites within Voyageurs National Park

#14 Relationship of Rainy River Hydrology to the Distribution and Abundance of Freshwater Mussels - February 2016

#15 Rainy River Index of Biotic Integrity – December 2014

#16 Study to measure critical spawning habitat for walleye (Sander vitreus) on selected lakes in the Namakan Reservoir and assess how this habitat has been affected by the International Joint Commission 2000 rule curve - July 2015

#17 Examining Municipal Water Treatment Plant and Fish Hatchery Data to Determine how these Facilities have been impacted by the 2000 Rule Curves - 2015

#18 Network Global Navigation Satellite System survey to harmonize water-surface elevation data for the Rainy River Basin: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5109, 20 p.

#21 Modeling the Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir Ecosystem Response to Water Level Regulation - March 2016

#22 Trophic State in Voyageurs National Park Lakes Before and After Implementation of a Revised Water-Level Management Plan

#23 Effects of Changes in Reservoir Operations on Water Quality and Trophic-State Indicators in Voyageurs National Park, Northern Minnesota, 2001-03

#24a Evaluation of internal loading and water level changes: implications for phosphorus, algal production, and nuisance blooms in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

#24b Relation of Nutrient Concentrations, Nutrient Loading, and Algal Production to Changes in Water Levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Northern Minnesota, 2008–09 

#25 Determining the Historical Impact of Water-level Management on Lakes in Voyageurs National Park

#26 Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuationon mercury accumulation in yellow perch

#27a The effects of water-level manipulation on the benthic invertebrates of a managed reservoir

#27 b Impacts from Water-Level Regulation on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake 

#28 Changes in Wetland Vegetation Associated with Lake Level Management, Voyageurs National Park; 2010 Appendix 1 Tables | Figures (4-31)

#29 Impacts of settlement, damming, and hydromanagement in two boreal lakes: a comparative paleolimnological study

#30 Relationship between Mercury Accumulation in Young-of-the-Year Yellow Perch and Water-Level Fluctuations

#31 Effects of Water-Level Management on Nesting Success of Common Loons

#32 Do Water Level Fluctuations Influence Production of Walleye and Yellow Perch Young-of-the-Year in Large Northern Lakes? Limited copies available by contacting or by permission at

#36a Seine River lake sturgeon 2011-2015 Final Report 

#36b Seine River Sturgeon Indicators Report

#36c Executive Summary–Seine River Temperature Project 2011-2015

#37 Recovery of a Wild Rice Stand following Mechanical Removal of Narrowleaf Cattail

#38 An Analysis of Water Temperatures on the Rainy River in Relation to Critical Fish Spawning Periods, with Recommendations on Peaking Restrictions - January, 2015

#39a Namakan Chain of Lakes Pinch Point Modelling - April, 2013

#39b Namakan Chain of Lakes Supplementary Information and Analysis of Bathymetry and Water Level Data - August 2013

#40 A Population Assessment of the Lake of the Woods-Rainy River Lake Sturgeon Population, 2014 - 2014

#41a Fall Walleye Index Netting on the North Arm of Rainy Lake, Ontario, 2007 - April 2009

#41b Fall Walleye Index Netting on Redgut Bay of Rainy Lake, 2008 - September 2011

#41c Fall Walleye Index Netting on the South Arm of Rainy Lake, Ontario, 2009 - September, 2011

#41d Rainy Lake Open Water Creel Survey, 2010-11 - 2012

#42a Population Characteristics and Adult Movement of Lake Sturgeon in the Lower Seine River System 2011-2014

#43 Fall Walleye Index Netting on Namakan and Sand Point Lakes, Ontario, 2000 - August 2003

#44 Fall Walleye Index Netting on Namakan Lake, Ontario, 2005 - February, 2007   

#45 Summary of 2000-2014 Fall Walleye Index Netting (FWIN) on Namakan Lake, Ontario and Assessment of Walleye and Northern Pike Population Status - March 2016

#46a A Summary of Commercial Whitefish Data North Arm - Rainy Lake License FF901 - February 2010

#46b A Summary of Commercial Whitefish Data North Arm- Rainy Lake License FF913 - February 2010

#46c A Summary of Commercial Whitefish Data Redgut Bay-Rainy Lake License FF915 - February 2010

#46d A Summary of Commercial Whitefish Data South Arm - Rainy Lake License FF917 - February 2010

#47 Roving Creel Surveys on Rainy Lake, Ontario 2010/11 - August 2012

#48 Lake Sturgeon Population Attributes and Reproductive Structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario - December 2011

#49 Lake Sturgeon Population Characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario - June 2005

#50 Lake Sturgeon Biology in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario - 2004 
#51 Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens) Population Attributes, Reproductive Structure and Distribution in Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario - September 2010 
#52 Vegetative Substrates used by Larval Northern Pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota - March 2014